A fungus (pronounced /ˈfʌŋɡəs/; pl. fungi or funguses) is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds), as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from plants, animals, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. These and other differences show that the fungi form a single group of related organisms, named the Eumycota (true fungi or Eumycetes), that share a common ancestor (a monophyletic group).
Yeasts are eukaryotic micro-organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with 1,500 species currently described estimated to be only 1% of all fungal species. Most reproduce asexually by budding, although a few do so by mitosis. Yeasts are unicellular, although some species with yeast forms may become multicellular through the formation of a string of connected budding cells known as pseudohyphae, or false hyphae, as seen in most molds. Yeast size can vary greatly depending on the species, typically measuring 3–4 µm in diameter, although some yeasts can reach over 40 µm.
Molds (or moulds; see spelling differences) are fungi that grow in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.Molds are considered to be microbes but microscopic fungi that grow as single cells are called yeasts. A connected network of these tubular branching hyphae has multiple, genetically identical nuclei and is considered a single organism, referred to as a colony.
Molds do not form a specific taxonomic or phylogenetic grouping, but can be found in the divisions Zygomycota, Deuteromycota and Ascomycota. Some molds cause disease or food spoilage, others play an important role in biodegradation or in the production of various foods, beverages, antibiotics and enzymes.
A mushroom is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. Like all fungi, mushrooms are not plants and do not undergo photosynthesis. The standard for the name "mushroom" is the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus; hence the word "mushroom" is most often applied to those fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) that have a stem (stipe), a cap (pileus), and gills (lamellae, sing. lamella) or pores on the underside of the cap.
Saprotrophic nutrition (pronounced /sæprɵˈtrɒfɪk/) is a process of chemoheterotrophic extra-cellular digestion involved in the processing of dead or decayed organic matter which occurs in saprotrophs or heterotrophs, and is most often associated with fungi, for example Mucor and Rhizopus. The process is most often facilitated through the active transport of such materials through endocytosis within the internal mycelium and its constituent hyphae.
A blastospore is an asexual fungal spore produced by budding. Produced by fungi within the phylum Glomeromycota and others. During gastrulation, it leads to the formation of the archenteron. It is also known as blastoconidium (plural = blastoconidia.)
A sporangium (pl., sporangia) (modern Latin, from Greek spora ‘spore’ + angeion ‘vessel.’) is an enclosure in which spores are formed. It can be composed of a single cell or can be multicellular. All plants, fungi, and many other lineages form sporangia at some point in their life cycle. Sporangia, also known as sporanges (sing., sporange), can produce spores by mitosis, but in nearly all land plants and many fungi, sporangia are the site of meiosis and produce genetically unique haploid spores.
A zygospore is a diploid reproductive stage in the life cycle of many fungi and protists. Zygospores are created by the nuclear fusion of haploid cells. In fungi, zygospores are termed chlamydospores and are formed after the fusion of hyphae of different mating types.
source; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZygosporeConidia, sometimes termed conidiospores, are asexual, non-motile spores of a fungus and are named after the greek word for dust, konia. They are also called mitospores due to the way they are generated through the cellular process of mitosis. The two new haploid cells are genetically identical to the haploid parent, and can develop into new organisms if conditions are favorable, and serve in biological dispersal.
SOME FUNGI CAN ALSO BE PARASITIC: LIVING OFF OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS.
QUICK BULLET POINTS:
- DIMORPHIS FUNGI- GROW AS YEAST OR MOLD
- FACULATIVE ANAEROBE
- MOST ARE NON PATHOGENIC
- NORMAL FLORA: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT
- FOUND ALSO: MUCCOUS, MOUTH AND VAGINA
- OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGENS: OVERGROW
- INFECTION: CANDIDIASIS
- THRUSH: MUCOCUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS
- NAILS INFECTION: ONYCHO- MYCOSIS
- MOST COMMON: C. albicans
- CHLAMYDOSPORES: THICK WALLED SURVIVAL SPORES
- LESSER KNOWN: PATHOGENIC: Cryptococcus neoformans
- SEXUAL FORM: Filobasidiella neoformans
- THICK CAPSULE
- NO: PSEUDOHYPHAE & CHLAMYDOSPORES
- FOUND IN SOIL & BIRD FECES
- CRYPTOCOCCAL MENINGEOENCEPHALITIS
- DISEASE; CRYPTOCOCCOSIS
|Candida albicans. source; http://www.microbeworld.org/index.php?option=com_jlibrary&view=article&id=1097|
|Cryptococcus neoformans. Source; http://www.asm.org/Division/c/fungi.htm|
|Rhizopus nigricans. source; http://www.dipbot.unict.it/sistematica/Rhizopu.html|
|Mucor. Source; http://www.eol.org/pages/18325|
|Aspergillus niger. source; http://blog.microbeinotech.com/bid/49873/Microbe-Fact-Sheet-Aspergillus-niger|
|Penicillium notatum. Source; http://www.ciriscience.org/ph_81-Mold_conidiophores_and_conidia_of_Penicillium_notatum_Copyright_Dennis_Kunkel_Microscopy|