Bullet Points: Types of Disinfectants

PHENOL AND PHENOLICS
  1. PHENOLS
    1. CARBOLIC ACID
    2. RARELY USED: ANTISPECTIC OR DISINFECTANT
    3. IRRITATES SKINS
    4. DISAGREEABLE ORDOR
    5. USED: THROAT LOZENGES: LOCAL ANESTHETIC EFFECT
    6. SIGNIFICANT ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT
  2. PHENOLICS
    1. CHEMICALLY ALTERED: REDUCE IRRITANTS AND INCREASE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY
    2. INJURES LIPID-CONTAINING PLASMA MEMBRANES
    3. SUSCEPTIBLE TO PHENOL DERIVATIVES: TUBERCULOSIS AND LEPROSY
    4. REMAIN ACTIVE  IN PRESENCE OF ANTIBACTERIAL FOR PERIOD TIME AFTER APPLICATION
    5. MOST FREQUENT USE: CRESOL: O-PHENYLPHENOL: LYSOL
  3. BISPHENOLS
    1. PRESCRIPTION LOTION: pHisoHex: SURGICAL & HOSPITAL MICROBIAL CONTROL PROCEDURES.
    2. CONTROL INFECTIONS: NURSERIES: GRAM POSITIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI & STREPTOCOCCI.
    3. TRICLOSAN: ANTIBACTERIAL SOASPS
    4. INHIBITS: ENZYME FOR BIOSYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACIDS (LIPIDS)
    5. EFFECTIVE AGAINST: GRAM-POSITIVE(<---ESPECIALLY), YEAST AND GRAM-NEGATIVE
      1. EXCEPTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
BIGUANIDES
  1. EFFECTIVE AGAISNT: GRAM-POSITIVE(<----ESPECIALLY) AND GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA
  2. NOT SPORCIDIAL
  3. SOME ACTIVITY AGAINST ENVELOPED VIRUSES
  4. BEST KNOWN BIGUANIDE: CHLORHEXIDINE
    1. MICROBIAL CONTROL: SKIN & MUCOUS MEMBRANE
      1. SCRUBS
HALOGENS
  1. IODINE & CHORINE: EFFECTIVE ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS
  2. IODINE (I2) : ANTISEPTIC: FOR SOME:  BACTERIA, ENDOSPORES, FUNGI, VIRUSES
    1. IMPAIRS PROTEIN SYNTHESIS 
    2. TINCTURE: SOLUTION IN AQUESOUS ALCOHOL
    3. IODOPHOR: COMBO: IODINE & ORGNIC MOLECULE
      1. DO NOT STAIN
      2. LESS IRRATANT
      3. COMMON COMMERCIAL PREP: BETADINE
    4. CHLORINE (Cl2): GAS OR COMBO WITH OTHER CHEMICALS
      1. GERMICIDAL
      2. CHLORINE + WATER= HYYPOCHLOROUS ACID (HOCl)
      3. HOCl: STRONG OXIDIZING AGENT: PREVENT CELLULAR ENZYME FUNCTION
      4. LIQUID FORM: DISINFECTING:
        1. WATER
        2. DAIRY EQUIPMENT
        3. EATING UTENSILS
ALCOHOLS
  1. KILLS: BACTERIA AND FUNGI
  2. DOESN'T KILL: NOT ENDOSPORES AND NONENVELOPED VIRUSES
  3. PROTEIN DENATURATION
  4. DISRUPT MEMBRANES
  5. DISSOLVE LIPS
  6. EVAPORATES FAST
  7. LEAVES NO RESIDUE
  8. WIPE AWAY DIRT , MICROORGANISMS AND SKIN OILS
  9. UNSATISFACTORY ANTISEPTICS: APPLIES TO WOUNDS
  10. CAUSE COAGULATION: BACTERIA CONTINUE GROWTH
  11. TWO COMMON: ETHANOL AND ISOPROPANOL
  12. AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS MORE EFFECTIVE
  13. POPULAR: PURELL

HEAVY METALS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS

  1. SEVERAL: BIOCIDAL OR ANTISEPTIC
  2. INHIBIT GROWTH OF BACTERIA
  3. EFFECTIVE: SILVER, MERCURY, ZINCE AND COPPER
  4. SILVER: ANTIBACTERIAL AGENT
  5. COPPER: DESTROY GREEN ALGAE
SURFACE ACTIVE AGENTS
  1. DECREASE SURFACE TENSION AMONG MOLECULES OF A LIQUID
    1. SOAPS AND DETERGENTS
      1. LITTLE VALUE AS ANTISEPTIC
      2. MECHANICAL REMOVAL: MICROBES
      3. EMULSIFICATION OCCURS
    2. ACID-ANIONIC SANITIZERS
      1. CLEAN: DAIRY EQUIPMENT AND UTENSILS
      2. ABILITY: SANITIZE
    3. QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (QUATS)
      1. WIDELY MOST USED
      2. STRONG BACTERICIDAL AGAINST GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA
        1. LESS IN GRAM-NEGATIVE
      3. FUNGICIDAL
      4. AMOEBICIDAL
      5. VIRUCIDAL
      6. DON'T KILL ENDOSORES OR MYCOBACTERIA
      7. EFFECTS CELL'S PERMEABILITY
      8. TWO POPULAR
        1. ZEPHIRAN- BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE
        2. CEPACOL- CETYLPYRIDINIUM CHLORIDE
      9. STRONG ANTIMICRBIOAL
      10. COLORLESS
      11. ODORLESS
      12. TASTELESS
      13. STABLE
      14. EASILY DILUTED
      15. NONTOXIC (EXCEPT HIGH CONCENTRATION)
      16. PSEUDOMONAS: SURVIVE AND GROW
CHEMICAL FOOD PRESERVATIVES
  1. ORGANIC ACIDS OR SALTS
    1. SULFUR DIOXIDE
    2. BENZOATE
    3. SORBIC ACID
      1. PREVENT MOLD IN FOOD
    4. CALCIUM PROPINATE
      1. EFFECTIVE FUNGISTAT
    5. GENERALLY SAFE IN FOOD
    6. SODIUM NITRATE AND SODIUM NITRITE
      1. MANY SMOKED MEAT PRODUCTS
      2. PRESEVE RED COLOR
      3. PREVENT GERMINATION
        1. AND GROWTH BOTULISM SPORES
ANTIBIOTICS
  1. HIGHLY RESTRICTED
  2. FOOD PERSERVATIVE
  3. NISIN: CHEESE: INHIBIT GROWTH: ENDOSPORE FORMING BACTERIA
  4. NATAMYCIN: ANTIFUNGAL: CHEESE
ALDEHYDES
  1. MOST EFFECTIVE ANTIMICROBIALS
  2. TWO:
    1. FORMALDEHYDE 
      1. DISINFECTANT
      2. PRESERVE BIOLOGICAL SPEICEMNS
    2. GLUTARLDEHYDE
      1. LESS IRRITATING
      2. MORE EFFECTIVE THAN FORMALDEHYDE
      3. DISINFECT HOSPITAL INSTRUMENTS
      4. BACTERICIDAL
      5. TUBERCULOCIDAL
      6. VIRUCIDAL
      7. SPORICIDAL
CHEMICAL STERILIZATION
  1. ETHYLENE OXIDE
    1. MOST COMMONLY USED
    2. USED ON HEAT SENSITIVE MATERIAL
    3. KILLS ALL MICROBES: STERILIZATION
    4. LONG PERIOD EXPOSURE
    5. TOXIC
    6. EXPLOSIVE: PURE FORM
    7. CHLORINE DIOXIDE: FUMIGATE: ENCLOSED BUILDINGS
  2. PLASMAS
    1. FOURTH STATE OF MATTER
    2. USED FOR STERILIZING CHALLENGED EQUIPMENT (TOO LONG OR SMALL)
    3. FREE RADICALS
      1. QICKLY DESTROY 
        1. EVEN ENDOSPOR-FORMING MICROBES
    4. BOTH PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL STERILIZATION
  3. SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS
    1. COMBINES: CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL METHODS
    2. BOTH GAS AND LIQUID
    3. ORGANISMS EXPOSED TO SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE: INACTIVATE
    4. USE: DECONTAMINATE MEDICAL IMPLANTS
      1. BONES
      2. TENDONS
      3. LIGAMENTS

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