Unrine Analysis

A urinalysis (or "UA") is an array of tests performed on urine and one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis.[1] A part of a urinalysis can be performed by using urine dipsticks, in which the test results can be read as color changes.
source; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urinalysis

source; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TuWiy4_VDWY&feature=BF&list=QL&index=1

source; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MDtu0ykxsV8&feature=BF&list=QL&index=2

source; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B2rkgJcEcO4&feature=BF&list=QL&index=4

HUMAN URINE: 95% water and 4% dissolved substances., please check out:


Good thing to know:

Albuminuria is a pathological condition wherein albumin is present in the urine. It is a type of proteinuria.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albuminuria

Pyelonephritis: Bacterial infection of the kidney. Pyelonephritis can be acute (sudden) or chronic (slow, subtle, and stubborn). It is most often due to the ascent of bacteria from the bladder up the ureters to infect the kidneys.
The symptoms of pyelonephritis include flank (side) pain, fever, shaking chills, sometimes foul-smelling urine, urgency (to urinate), frequency (urinating), and general malaise. Tenderness is elicited on gently tapping over the kidney with a fist (percussion).
The laboratory examination of the urine (the urinalysis) reveals white blood cells (pyuria, i.e. pus in the urine) and bacteria in the urine (bacteriuria). There is usually also an increase in circulating white cells in the blood (leucocytosis).
Treatment involves appropriate antibiotics.
source: http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=5146

PDF: Information and how to read LABSTIX strips

Average Daily Output of Urine: 1200cc to 1500cc.

Even with severe restrict to water intake: I human doesn't exceed less than 30cc an hour.

DIURESIS: mean excess urine production.

OLIGURIA: is low output of urine.

POLYURIA: excretion of more than 55cc per hour.

NOCTURIA: excessive urination at night, usually greater than 500cc.

MICTURITION: means urination.

A refractometer is a laboratory or field device for the measurement of an index of refraction. The index of refraction is calculated from Snell's law and can be calculated from the composition of the material using the Gladstone-Dale relation.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refractometer

source; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tJ1mQN_NnpI

source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Hdz6PxFiyc&feature=related

source; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdGj38Xma8k&feature=related

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